‘Making Estonia Bigger’: What E-Residency in E-Estonia Can Do for You, What It Can Do for Estonia


Estonia has become the first country in the world to offer non-residents a transnational digital identity (an e-resident’s digital identity card) which seeks to promote and develop the Estonian economy, science, education and culture. The principle benefits associated with e-residency are secure electronic authentication and access to e-services by public or private providers. Considering the importance of direct foreign investment in the Estonian economy, the national authorities have singled out services related to the online establishment and distance administration of businesses. E-residency reflects a major trend in the convergence of legal regulation and practice related to ‘virtual’ and ‘real’ forms of everyday human activities.

Vadim Poleshchuk is a lawyer at the European Parliament. The content of this policy brief does not reflect the official opinion of the European Union or the European Parliament. Responsibility for the information and views expressed in the piece lies entirely with the author.

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